cdg.net

CDG Forums
Your Ad Here
It is currently Sat Nov 25, 2017 8:41 am

All times are UTC [ DST ]




Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 13 posts ] 
Author Message
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 9:30 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
NOTE: This is currently still being worked on. I actually clicked submit accidentally, instead of preview, and i dont want to lose what i've written so far. Bare with me here.
UPDATE: I figured it looks too uninviting to a reader. I decided to split it up into posts for each chapter.

Image

----------------------------------------------------------------
Introduction
----------------------------------------------------------------

Well, I can't really call this a tutorial, because there's no practical element, but you could consider it a lesson, I guess?
The aim of this post is to give skinners a better understanding of materials and how to represent them accrately in texture space.

--------------------------------------------------------------
The idea is to teach some pure texturing techniques. The same principles taught here can be applied to differing degrees in any kind of texture, but be aware that shader or material effects are outside the scope of this lesson. We will be looking only at the creation of diffuse maps here.

I will try to break this up into an organised slab of text so it is more inviting to read. If you want to take up serious texturing, this will be well worth your while, because a lot of skinners, even "accomplished" ones, still struggle with it.

Let's get into this shit.

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Last edited by harry on Wed Jun 20, 2007 1:06 pm, edited 2 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 10:16 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
----------------------------------------------------------------
Section A, Colour
----------------------------------------------------------------
When I tell you that colour should attract two thirds of your attention whilst skinning anything, you will probably act like you already know. However, a vast majority of skinners dont actually understand what this means. Many skinners think of "colour" as tones, or values. This is not what I mean.

In "proper" CGI terms, the diffuse map of a material should contain only the hue and saturation of the texture. However, with our ingame lighting algorithms and whatnot, we tend to paint some "fake" lighting onto the diffuse map to make it look a little nicer.

Everyone skins in RGB colour. However, it is more appropriate here to talk in terms of HSV colour, that is, hue, saturation, and value. The pure colour we are discussing in section A encompasses the hue, and saturation. Forget value for now.
To revise, the hue of a colour is basically, "whether it's a red or a green or a blue." The saturation is how vivid the colour is. Zero saturation results in a shade of grey. If you dont fully understand this concept, read up on the HSI/HSV colour system until you get it, then come back and read on.

Now, the most important part of making a skin look believable, espescially an organic skin like a character or other natural object, is the hue and saturation. Ever looked at one of your skins and thought "Why doesnt it look like Millenia's/Kimono's work?" - This is because the aforementioned artists are pseudo-masters in the use of colour. Usually when you find yourself looking at a skin and seeing it has a kind of "life" which you just can't put your finger on, It's clever little variations in hue which you can barely notice, but make all the difference.

To give an example, I will show the flats of the bakelite grip of my konovalov prototype.
I've eyedropped various spots on the texture to illustrate the subtle variations in hue and saturation which make all the difference.
Image
Depending on how you work, they key is good bases or overlays. You can use photographic sources for this, but i usually like to create mine at least 90% from scratch.
The most obvious way to get this the way you want it is to paint it yourself, but some quick ways of making an erratic arrangement of colours is using photoshop noise filters, cloud filters with many colours, sponge, or even with JPEG compression artifacts. The key is to think laterally and be creative.

With the basic concept covered, I will go over a few common "grey areas" where a lot of beginners, and even pros, often struggle.
Links are provided to photos of the actual material. Always Remember; Refer to Reality. Or "A.R.R.R." as pete the pirate might prefer to call it.

METAL:
Metal is probably the easiest material to make. Recently-manufactured metal has a tendancy to keep its colour fast, but this doesn't mean you don't still have to add variation. Just keep it very subtle unless the metal is old, or dirty/scorched.
The common trend with representing reflective metal is to use a blue or white coloured light coming from above, "to reflect the sky" and a more warm yellow or brown tinted one from below for the "ground."
NB: Nine times out of ten, metal will look better with some amount of colour in it. Greyscale chrome or metal always looks like balls.
1911s are gay, so are Kimbers

CLOTH:
Next easiest would probably be cloth. Cloth would only have minimal variation in hue on most textures, but it is a "step-up" from metal in that you'll usually find it varies a lot more in saturation. However, There's more to cloth than just colour. In most game engines, the key to making cloth look believable is your lighting of the rumples and creases in the cloth. This aspect of texture painting is not covered in this lesson. Sorry.
Lol Shirt

MODERN PLASTICS:
Modern or new plastics are pretty easy. Depending on the type you want to make, you can usually apply similar rules as with metal, but saturation is usually dropped a bit with the lighting. If you want a plastic to be matte, make your lighting broad and soft in gradient, also make it weaker in intensity. If you want your plastic to look quite shiny or glossy, make the highlights more abrupt, stronger, and thinner.
Textbook example of modern plastics in a weapon, the MP5.

OLD SKOOL PLASTICS (LIKE BAKELITE):
Old plastics, (referred to henceforth as bakelite, for simplicity) can be a little tricky because they tend to behave in a different way than youd expect when they react with light.
I've found that bakelite has a tendancy to retain quite a lot of saturation in its shadows, you can see i've illustrated this on the grip texture shown earlier. Furthermore, Bakelite tends to be quite glossy in appearance, so the highlights are fairly sharp and fairly white. (This might sound vague and stupid, but I will delve into different surfaces in section B) Bakelite will also have a lot more hue and saturation variance than other, more modern plastics.
Picture of real bakelite

SKIN:
Skin is something I think you can never be a master at. But I figure I know a thing or two about painting it, so I'll share my findings, developed through years of trial and error.
The first, and biggest, fuckup people make with skin, is failure to put variance in their hues. It's the most fundamental part of making skin textures, and the thing will just never look right if you don't accept this.
Human skin isnt just fleshy pink in colour, there's splotches of red, blue, yellow, green, purple, brown. Start with a good base and you will be on the right track. Just remember to keep it subtle. Experiment and see what works best for you, and remember what I said about thinking creatively.
The next most important part, is the use of red. If you are painting skin, never ever ever draw your shadows with a black brush. Ever. The darkest colour you will ever want to use would be a dark brown, like the colour of dark chocolate. Hints of red for shadows quite literally brings skin to life, and gives it a warm glow. Give subtle red hues around any skeletal joints, and around orifices like nostrils, mouths, anuses (if you decide to texture an anus that is... sicko) Faces are where this counts most. In fact, painting faces realistically is worthy of a whole tutorial of its own, so be aware that I am only covering the basics to give you a shove in the right direction here. A.R.R.R. On the same note as using a dark red for shadows, try using a light straw-colour for your highlights on skin. I find this usually gives good results.
This photograph illustrates use of a "glowing red" style of shadows. Note the red hues around the joints in the fingers.


RAW WOOD:
Ah, Rosa's favourite :)
Raw wood is probably one of the trickiest things you can ever attempt. Mostly because there is just so much variance among different types of woodgrains.
Because AK wood is where people usually want to make nice looking grains, I will use an AK as an example. The main thing people tend to fuck up is using a wood textured base. Big mistake if you want it to look anything like the real thing.
The best results when texturing wooden stocks or furniture, is to hand paint the entire thing. I know, that isn't what you wanted to hear, but it's the hard truth. I could write a whole other section on painting the actual woodgrain, but i'm here to tell you about use of colour. The most simple way to explain this is to think of the rings in the woodgrain as coloured darkly, and the rest of the fibre or "flesh," if you will, would be a more typical "pine" colour. The closer a ring is to the surface, the closer you will get to the colour of that ring. One edge of the rings in a woodgrain will usually grade into the base wood colour more abruptly. When considering an AK stock, the edge facing "out" of the stock usually has the abrupt transition in colour. Look at the picture if that doesn't make sense. Youll usually get a lot of variation in saturation for wood, but you can try hue variation too, experiment a little.
Untreated AK furniture.

STAINED WOOD:
Possibly one of the most complex materials, in terms of how many painted layers you will need to apply.
With stained wood, you will want to start with a raw wood base. From there you would overlay whatever colour you'd want the stain to be, and adjust until it looks about right.
Now, for the part where most people fuck up. Think about the process of staining/laquering/varnishing wood. If you haven't done it before, the stain is usually a somewhat viscous liquid applied by a brush, or perhaps the object is simply submerged in the substance.
To make convincing stain or varnish, you should observe the actual contours of the object you are painting. The best way for me to illustrate this is to use the most extreme case available. The SVD/Vintorez style stock. There are a ton of curves and contours to paint, and the varnish takes to them each in a different way. Notice that crevices, and other convex surfaces, will attract a thicker gathering of stain or varnish, making it darker and closer to the hue of the stain. Inversely, concave and even flat surfaces will tend to thin the liquid out, revealing more of the underlying woodgrain.
The following picture is about the best example I could find, unfortunately. If you look closely you can see that the varnish gathers in crevices, and thins out over flat surfaces.
The effect is seen here on the VSS stock.

MOVING RIGHT ALONG CUNTS

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Last edited by harry on Wed Jun 20, 2007 1:13 pm, edited 11 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 10:17 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
----------------------------------------------------------------
Section B, Surface
----------------------------------------------------------------

Surfaces, contours, surface properties.
These are some of the big killers of up-and-coming skinners.
Believe it or not, retards, the actual geometric and atomic properties of an object have an enormous effect on how you skin.
This whole section is the very reason photoskins look like crap 98% of the time. The underlying concept here is the neccessity to think, and visualise. As a skinner, as a painter, you have to act, in some regards, as a mini-rendering engine.
Keep lightsources as consistent as you can. As a general rule I'll usually light things from the top and slightly in front, or slightly behind. Choose a light source or two, and stick to them religiously.

Now, for the part that isnt completely obvious.
As a budding young skinner, you are aware of the "overlay" and "dodge" layer blending modes. Woooooo, don't they just look awesome.
Unfortunately, there's a lot more to it than that.

To light surfaces you need to choose the right layer blending mode. When I started out, I loved how overlay and dodge looked, and I was so eager to use it everywhere. Over time, you could say I matured as an artist and started trying other things to make a more believable piece. Nowadays, I use normal blending mode around 80% of the time on all my work. This is one of a bunch of factors which give a skin a somewhat painterly feel as opposed to one that "looks" like it was done in photoshop.

Usually on metal objects, overlay or dodge can look great. I don't think I've used dodge in a few years, but I can vouch for its power, if that striking contrast is what you are looking for in your skin work.

The next step is to look at plenty of refs, (see A.R.R.R) and think about the surface you are representing. Is it rough? Is it smooth? Is it hard? Is it soft? Is it glossy? Is it dull?
Learn to be a good judge of a surface's properties and you will become a better skinner. Observe many pictures of the same thing, under different lighting conditions, and decide carefully how you will portray it.

Weapons are a better place to start practising this. Look carefully at how glossy or matte the object is, and draw your lighting appropriately, IE, thinner, more abrupt highlights for more glossy objects, and more broad and gentle highlights for matte.
This is easier to do with weapons because usually the "glossiness level" on each type of material is pretty much the same.
On organic objects, espescially skin, and even more espescially, faces, you'll get varying levels of gloss on different areas of the surface.
My work is far from perfect, but it's available, and it illustrates what i'm talking about, so here's another little snippet.
My baby's face.
You can see (I hope) that the baby's face is quite soft and matte around the cheeks and forehead, while the tip of the nose, and the eyelids are considerably glossier.
Image
The easiest way to determine what should be glossy and what should be matte is to look at heaps of photos, but if all else fails, a pretty good rule to go by is tension = glossiness. To elaborate, if the skin hangs more loosely in any area, it will usually be more matte. This doesnt apply to the eyelids, which are more reflective for other reasons.

----------------------------------------------------------------

With the basics explained, I will use an example to illustrate the concept in context.

The most common mistake I am seeing lately is in portraying glossy or varnished wood.
The main thing which makes this a good example is that it uses a kind of "dual layer" lighting, making it good practise as it covers two surfaces in one object, and secondly because people often get it wrong.
This will be easier to understand if you have some knowledge of physics and light, but I'll try to explain it in general terms.
Try to visualise the layer of varnish as a separate, clear layer. It lets light through it, which lights the wood underneath. (this is why you start with a raw wood texture before adding the varnish layer)
So the wood is lit as normal, then you light the varnish itself as an upper layer, to correctly portray that appearance of two layers.
The wood on its own is lit to still retain its texture. This can be done either by manual painting, or by using overlay for lighting. That way your wood will have lighting, but the grain will still be visible "through" the lighting.
The varnish layer is lit differently. Since varnish is glossy, you would use comparably sharp highlights, And since it forms a smooth layer, (which is above the woodgrain, and thus independant of it) your lighting of this layer should not be effected by the woodgrain beneath.
An example (albeit not the best around) is part of a skin I made, of Macaroane's romanian AK handguard.
Image

Hopefully here you can see that the wood is lit first, then I add smooth white highlights to simulate the look of glossy varnished wood.
Refer back to the photograph of the Vintorez in section A for a more extreme example with harsher highlights.

I'm thinking that covers the basics. If I get any other queries about this, I will update the section with deeper explanations, and maybe some other examples.

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Last edited by harry on Wed Jun 20, 2007 1:15 pm, edited 14 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 10:18 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
----------------------------------------------------------------
Section C, detailing
----------------------------------------------------------------

Detailing is the icing on the cake.
Things such as wear & tear (WnT), edging, engravings, skinned rivets or bolts, all comes under the banner of detailing.
Detailing should be your final layer on a texture, as it is the finest layer.

If you don't have at least a basic idea of what WnT, edging etc... are, read up some basic skinning tutorials on these forums until you get the gist.


WEAR AND TEAR:

Wear and tear refers to any physical deformity on the surface of the object, which is not part of the weapon's design on paper. Natural abnormalities in wood are quite common, and sometimes even the process of manufacturing a weapon can add dents, bumps, scratches, and otherwise non-uniform surfaces to an object.

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Last edited by harry on Wed Jun 20, 2007 3:15 pm, edited 5 times in total.

Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 11:35 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Apr 18, 2006 4:07 pm
Posts: 3527
Location: Norway
Adding sky and ground color to cloth makes it more vibrant fool.

This thread is awesome.

_________________
Image


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 11:41 am 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
Rosa Jonas wrote:
Adding sky and ground color to cloth makes it more vibrant fool.


Yeah, but that's something you'd only do sometimes. You dont want to get people overdoing it and end up with soldiers wearing satin :lol:

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 1:35 pm 
Offline
Old Timer

Joined: Sun Jun 04, 2006 1:36 am
Posts: 791
sticky??

and finish my ak bish... :P

_________________
Image


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 1:36 pm 
Offline
Clinically Dead
User avatar

Joined: Tue Dec 20, 2005 9:12 am
Posts: 4862
Location: Tulsky Oruzheiny Zavod
i only did it for wood :P get someone else to do the metal

_________________
Image
Click the image^ for my work, and feel welcome to post on my forum, it's a game art and general discussion community which i hope to expand into a comfortable place where people can learn from eachother.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Wed Jun 20, 2007 9:18 pm 
Offline
Warning Level 1
Warning Level 1
User avatar

Joined: Tue Apr 27, 2004 1:42 pm
Posts: 8497
macaroane wrote:
sticky??


That wouldn't really accomplish much :P

_________________
Posting Awesome since 1954


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Thu Jun 21, 2007 2:53 pm 
Offline
Wise Old Man
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jun 19, 2007 2:40 am
Posts: 1095
Location: Canadaaa
macaroane wrote:
sticky??

and finish my ak bish... :P


If he does the stock and the top fore grip I might do the metal.


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Thu Jun 21, 2007 9:36 pm 
Offline
Old Timer

Joined: Sun Jun 04, 2006 1:36 am
Posts: 791
thepineapplehead wrote:
macaroane wrote:
sticky??


That wouldn't really accomplish much :P


at least it won't be lost due to no posts


@acid
he did the upper fore too and someof the reciever, tough when he gave me the maps the stock had only the fiber painted, no litghing... :D

edit: oh he also did the bakelite pistol grip (wich looks awse btw) and some pats on the bayo

_________________
Image


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Thu Jun 21, 2007 11:33 pm 
Offline
Wise Old Man
User avatar

Joined: Tue Jun 19, 2007 2:40 am
Posts: 1095
Location: Canadaaa
macaroane wrote:
thepineapplehead wrote:
macaroane wrote:
sticky??


That wouldn't really accomplish much :P


at least it won't be lost due to no posts


@acid
he did the upper fore too and someof the reciever, tough when he gave me the maps the stock had only the fiber painted, no litghing... :D

edit: oh he also did the bakelite pistol grip (wich looks awse btw) and some pats on the bayo


SENDSENDSENDSENDSENDSENDSENDSENDSENDSEND


Top
 Profile  
 
 Post subject:
PostPosted: Fri Jun 22, 2007 1:24 pm 
Offline
Clinically Dead

Joined: Sat Feb 11, 2006 3:01 pm
Posts: 3187
great read, needs more sticky


Top
 Profile  
 
Display posts from previous:  Sort by  
Post new topic Reply to topic  [ 13 posts ] 

All times are UTC [ DST ]


Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 10 guests


You cannot post new topics in this forum
You cannot reply to topics in this forum
You cannot edit your posts in this forum
You cannot delete your posts in this forum

Search for:
Jump to:  
Your Ad Here
Powered by phpBB® Forum Software © phpBB Group